The so-called geospatial technologies of remote sensing (including airborne and space-borne sensors), geographical information systems (GISs), global positioning systems (GPSs), mobile computing (e.g. portables, tablets, and smartphones), apps, digital cameras, cloud data storage, UAVs, and the Internet, are all increasingly useful tools for a wide range of environmental monitoring and mapping applications where there is a requirement for data collection and access to digital spatial data and information both in the laboratory and in the field (Green, 2005).