There are two main sections to this final chapter. The first section addresses renewed interest in teachers as curriculum inquirers and schools as curriculum agencies. Here discussion focuses on the balance between central direction (government policy for schools and national curricula frameworks) and professional discretion to meet local needs (school-level decision making, curriculum flexibility). Enhanced responsibilities and opportunities for curriculum innovation and review by teachers are considered. The second section addresses the value and limits of cross-national comparison in curriculum development. Areas of convergence and divergence are identified and the political basis of curriculum making is stressed, particularly the extent to which curriculum policy can be said to be evidence-based and informed by consultation. Throughout this collection we have argued that the primary curriculum for the future needs to address approaches to teaching and learning (‘pedagogy’), the ways in which children and their learning are assessed, and the contexts in which they live and learn. This is best achieved through an aims-informed and process-driven approach to the curriculum. Developing the curriculum from this perspective requires a strong commitment to teacher development, professional inquiry and values-clarification.