Introduction This chapter reflects on the Marmot Review, Fair Society, Healthy Lives (Marmot Review 2010), and considers its impact and role in current public health policy and practice. In this way it provides a contextual background for the content of the book’s ensuing chapters. Following a summary of the development of the Review and its contribution, a critique will be provided that raises crucial questions regarding the constraints of the approach taken by Marmot and his team.