The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea transformed the jurisdictional zones in the world’s oceans and the way in which fi sheries are managed. This chapter considers the international legal framework that governs the oceans, focusing on the protection and preservation of the marine environment under the Convention on the Law of the Sea and the management of fi sheries, marine habitats and marine biodiversity conservation. Given the imperative of ensuring the protection and sustainable management of marine living resources for livelihoods and food security, this chapter explores innovative approaches to current challenges and the way forward.