Critics decry the 2005 peace agreement between the Government of Sudan (GoS) and Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) as incomplete, a result of the desire of external actors for a quick solution that is neither truly comprehensive nor sustainable. At the turn of the millennium the conflict between the GoS and SPLM/A had reached stalemate, but both parties still sought victory on the battlefield. A broad gulf separated their positions in peace talks, and external supporters and facilitators of negotiation showed signs of fatigue and disengagement. The momentous Machakos Protocol, signed on 20 July 2002, prepared the ground for the 9 January 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). Despite imperfect implementation, the CPA has proved surprisingly resilient; an uneasy peace prevailed during the six-year interim period, and in January 2011 a referendum overwhelmingly approved South Sudanese secession. The CPA process is not only a significant feature of Sudan’s modern history, but is also the cornerstone of the first mutually agreed secession in Africa.2