The benefi cial effects of learning goals, a state, on self-regulation and performance were unknown when Locke and Latham ( 1990 ) published their theory and the research on which it is based. Hence, the purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, we review empirical research on learning goals. These studies show that both individuals and groups perform better with learning than performance goals on tasks that are complex for them. Second, the results of a meta-analysis on these studies are described. Third, this chapter concludes with a discussion of the practical implications of the research fi ndings, limitations in research designs, and areas for future research on learning goals.