There has been extensive interest in and research activity on the general topic of goals and self-regulation in the 20 years since the publication of the breakthrough theory of goal-setting and task performance (Locke & Latham, 1990 ). The purpose of this chapter is to provide a focused update on advancement in the topics of self-regulation/ self-management as they pertain to goal setting since 1990. It is an interesting historical note that the topics of self-regulation and self-management covered only three pages in the Locke and Latham book; however, the amount of research that has been published on these topics directly and indirectly in the intervening time is impressive. Given the sheer volume of available research, it is not possible to review every published study. Instead, we will focus on research that we consider to be noteworthy, especially as they forge new areas of understanding. In addition, we broaden the focus from the effects of goals and self-regulation on task (or job) performance to also address areas associated with long-term development, learning, and individual change.