Introduction After World War II, Japan rapidly transformed itself from an Offi cial Development Assistance (ODA) recipient to a major donor nation. This transition refl ected Japan’s response to its domestic economy and its evolving national and regional security policies. Scholars such as Calder (1988) and Orr (1990) have noted that gaiatsu (foreign pressure) from the US infl uenced Japan’s ODA policies and the amount of aid that Japan was giving.