The world watched as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) became independent on June 30, 1960. The moment was historic as the fi rst democratic elections took place in the country. Patrice Émery Lumumba was elected as the fi rst prime minister, and Joseph Kasavubu became the fi rst president. Their cohabitation in this parliamentary regime was, however, short-lived. Lumumba was arrested within a month after taking offi ce and subsequently assassinated six months later. Joseph Kasavubu was overthrown by Joseph-Désiré Mobutu on November 24, 1965. Mobutu’s bloodless coup d’état marked the country’s long march onto the path of dictatorship and the advent of a strong man. As a consequence, the country was ravaged by war, inequality, injustice, corruption, poor health, hunger, and poverty, which culminated in the demise of the Mobutu regime. This change was generally regarded as a step toward ending the history of absolute power. However, the root causes that had created a corrupt environment had become rooted in the political culture of the governing elite. The country’s problems remained unsolved.