The world watched as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) became independent on June 30, 1960. The moment was historic as the ﬁ rst democratic elections took place in the country. Patrice Émery Lumumba was elected as the ﬁ rst prime minister, and Joseph Kasavubu became the ﬁ rst president. Their cohabitation in this parliamentary regime was, however, short-lived. Lumumba was arrested within a month after taking offi ce and subsequently assassinated six months later. Joseph Kasavubu was overthrown by Joseph-Désiré Mobutu on November 24, 1965. Mobutu’s bloodless coup d’état marked the country’s long march onto the path of dictatorship and the advent of a strong man. As a consequence, the country was ravaged by war, inequality, injustice, corruption, poor health, hunger, and poverty, which culminated in the demise of the Mobutu regime. This change was generally regarded as a step toward ending the history of absolute power. However, the root causes that had created a corrupt environment had become rooted in the political culture of the governing elite. The country’s problems remained unsolved.