When we talk about the China miracle it is apparent that the traditional development mode, relying on exports, investment and extensive consumption of natural resources, is not sustainable. From the ninth to the twelfth ﬁve-year plan of national economic and social development (1996-2015), changing the economic growth mode was mentioned several times. It was highlighted in the ‘Economic Working Meeting of the Central Committee of the CPC’ in December 2011 that changing the economic development mode should be accelerated. Why was it was mentioned again roughly 20 years after its ﬁrst mention? It is necessary and it has not been achieved. From this perspective, we can say China’s development will be sustainable if its development mode is changed.