During the Francoist period in Spain (1939-1975), teaching the norms for etiquette was a curricular component at both the primary and the secondary-school levels. This desire to shape the behaviour of children and young adults from an early age is refl ected in the great number of school textbooks that contain sections dedicated to courtesy or neighbouring concepts such as urbanity, ethics, kindness and good manners. As such, teaching norms of behaviour, which took place within a strict Catholic framework, was a signifi cant part of the socialization of the children of the so-called New State . One of the key functions carried out by this formative component of the curriculum was the compartmentalization of society into distinct categories, especially with regard to class, power and gender, with the purpose of assigning restricted social roles to all members.