The intelligence cycle model explains almost everywhere as an appropriate and accurate depiction of how intelligence systems function, is, in fact, neither appropriate nor accurate. The cycle model seems to have its origins in the growth of intelligence systems in the Second World War, and has been taught both in the US and in other countries. In both civilian and military intelligence, analysts work from an enormous existing database. During the Cold War only the most sophisticated and advanced intelligence systems could intercept communications or other electronic signals, mostly using satellites for the purpose. The main failing is that intelligence cycle model leaves out two of the key functions of intelligence: counter-intelligence (CI) and covert action (CA). Now most intelligence systems can engage in cyber espionage hacking is the more common term to penetrate an adversarys communications. The matrix model is a much more realistic model of the intelligence process.