The introduction presents an overview of key concepts covered in the subsequent chapters of this book. The author begins this chapter by highlighting some of the features that seem to enable ecocultural ways of living. These include a close connection to the land, the development of knowledge and skills required to live lightly on it, the preservation of close social ties, community autonomy and flexibility, such that communities can respond to challenging and changing times. Next, It discusses some of the immense challenges that both emerging and established ecocultures must navigate. Communities that have lived long on the land are finding it changing beyond recognition as a result of climate change and the impacts of economic development. Emerging communities must navigate the dysfunctionalities that come with group organization. Putting these enabling factors and challenges in context, The author end with reflections on the potential of ecocultures to contribute to a wider global transition to sustainable ways of living.