The protracted conflict in the Province of Aceh, Indonesia, which began in early 1990 and has escalated since the downfall of President Suharto's New Order government in May 1998, constitutes one of the bloodiest conflicts in contemporary Southeast Asia. The results of the conflict, both in terms of human casualties and material loss, have been enormous. During the eight years of brutal military suppression from 1990 to 1998, for example, human rights organisations estimated that 1321 people were killed, 3430 people tortured, and 128 women raped. There were also 1958 cases of disappearance, while 16,375 children lost their parents, and 597 buildings, villagers' houses, shops, and schools were burned (FPHA 1999, see also, Gamma, 4 April 1999). And, as the conflict drags on until today, the number of casualties has continued to rise.