Having examined the development of the national curriculum for primary education in England and Wales in Part I and having explored the relationships and tensions in schooling between children’s needs and societies’ demands, in Part II we outline how others have approached, and are currently operating and debating, similar issues worldwide. As the countries involved-Africa, Japan, the United States of America, Australia, Hong Kong and China-are so culturally, politically and socially diverse (and some so geographically vast), authors have usually focused upon one specific geographical area of that country to apply as the basis for their discussions. Differences in perspectives within and across countries are also acknowledged.