By about 1992 arguments based on congestion, local environmental quality, and strategic environmental sustainability, had converged to the extent that urban transport policy in principle now nearly everywhere proposes a reasonably well-defined approach, which usually consists of:

• containment or reduction of the total volume of traffic; • improved and expanded public transport systems; • better provision for pedestrians and cyclists; • pedestrianization, and traffic calming, to reduce the dominance of vehicle

traffic; • traffic restraint and traffic management, aimed at reduced flows and

increased reliability rather than maximizing the throughput of vehicles; • the control of land-use changes and new development in such a way as to

reduce journey length and car use wherever possible; • interest in (but not commitment to) charging people directly for the

congestion and environmental damage they cause using the roads.