This was followed by half a century of US rule that further formalized the institutions of democracy with a strong bill of rights and, with even more lasting effect, created a cadre of lawyers and government bureaucrats reared in the language of rights. The Philippines regained its independence in 1946, and has since been governed under four constitutions: the independence charter which was in effect until Marcos declared martial law in 1972;3 the Marcos charter which was in effect from January 1973 until Cory Aquino’s “People Power” uprising; the interim Freedom Constitution of 1986 under which Cory governed during the transition; and the current 1987 Constitution which codified the libertarian goals and the social reform agenda of Cory’s democratic coalition.