As discussed in Chapter 4 “Theory-testing research”, case studies can be used to test theory by testing propositions. A test of a proposition is determining whether a hypothesis that is derived from the proposition is confirmed or rejected in an instance of the object of study. A hypothesis is confirmed if the observed pattern of scores is the same as the pattern predicted by the hypothesis, and rejected if the scores are not the same. Depending on the outcome of the test, the proposition from which it is derived will be supported or not supported.