The abuse and diversion of controlled prescribed drugs is increasing, especially in young adults (1). In response to the growing problem, law enforcement authorities and state licensing boards continue to investigate clinicians and their prescribing habits. While the propriety of certain investigations, at times, has been questionable and arguably contributory to the growing fear of prescribing controlled substances, clinicians need to stay current with legal/regulatory issues pertaining to the use of controlled substances to treat pain. By doing so, clinicians can conquer their fear issues and stay prepared for unexpected board inquiries and other legal challenges. Likewise, clinicians should strive to understand the fundamentals of the legal/regulatory landscape governing prescribing of controlled substances so they can make (and document) their response to patient issues while simultaneously providing quality medical care.