Atherosclerosis is a diffuse, progressive disease distributed heterogeneously throughout the vasculature. It is a complex pathology reflecting a multitude of interrelated processes including lipid disturbances, platelet activation, thrombosis, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular smooth cell activation, altered matrix metabolism, remodeling, and genetics. Clinically, atherosclerosis may present as subtle, nonspecific symptoms or as sudden death, depending upon the circulatory territory involved, the caliber of the affected artery, local and regional flow dynamics, and the end-organ involved (1).