The diseases that are transmitted by arthropods cause severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The burden of many of these diseases is borne largely by developing countries. Advances in vector genomics offer new promise for the control of arthropod vectors of disease. Radical changes in vector biology research are required if scientists are to exploit genomic data and implement changes in public health. Use of chemicals to control vector-borne diseases often exerts influence associated with environmental toxicity and has adverse effects on human health. Moreover, this method leads to potentiate the vector for resistance. The strategy for the control of vector-borne diseases should be paratransgenic. Symbiotic or commensal microbial pathogens should be transformed to express products of genes that interfere with the transmission of pathogens. That is to say the genetically modified microbes are to be reintroduced back to the insect (vector). This method decreases the ability of the vector to transmit the pathogen into the human body. The paratransgenic method, if utilized efficiently, can reduce, for example, Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, transmitted by the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus; and the parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, transmitted by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. There are many effector biomolecules (e.g., antimicrobial peptides and specific single chain antibodies) currently being explored for the activities of an “antiparasite” in the systems to control vector-borne diseases. This method deserves environmental protection and exert positive influence on the health of human beings. However, the field application of laboratory-based evidence of paratransgenesis imposes the use of more realistic confined semifield environments.