Microbes are known as a source for many novel metabolites and biosurfactants (BSs) are one such group of molecules produced by bacteria, yeast, fungi and actinomycetes. Type of BSs based on their chemical composition include, glycolipins, gids, glycolipoprotelycopeptides, lipopeptides, lipoproteins, fatty acids, phospholipids, neutral lipids, lipopolysaccharides and glycoglycerolipids. Diverse structural and chemical properties make BSs suitable for broad spectrum applications such as emulsification, dispersion, solubilizing, wetting, microbial growth enhancement, antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and anticancer agents. Unlike their chemical counterparts, BSs are ecofriendly, nontoxic, biodegradable, easy to produce and cost effective. Their application areas include environmental (bioremediation and oil extraction), industrial (emulsifiers and dispersants) and medical sectors (antimicrobial and therapeutics). Being potential biomolecules, the demand for microbial BSs are growing every year and need for more scientific information on high yield production and development of new applications for BSs is also in high demand. This chapter will provide introductory information of microbial BSs and other chapters in this book will provide more detailed information of each microbial BS and their application in various sectors.