218Britain has a great tradition in healthcare invention and discovery: William Harvey describing blood circulation in 1628, the discovery of antibiotics, development of the smallpox vaccine, DNA and sequencing, inventing computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, conducting the first blood transfusion, and having more Nobel laureates in medicine and physiology than any country other than the United States. British clinicians and scientists have innovated since long before the inception of the National Health Service (commonly referred to as the NHS) in postwar Britain in 1948.