ABSTRACT: A large portion of the human population reside in earthen structures. Traditional and vernacular earthen structures are eco-friendly, green and sustainable. In order to overcome the inherent limitations of unstabilised earth based constructions and to meet the emerging demand for the low embodied carbon materials certain modern earth construction techniques have evolved. There have been research & development and dissemination efforts across the globe to promote the modern earth construction techniques for the last 40-50 years. This review paper provides current information on scientific, technological and recent developments in modern earth construction. R&D and dissemination work on earth constructions based on earth blocks, extruded earth masonry units, adobe, rammed earth and stabilisation including the growing use of geopolymers in earth construction has been reviewed. Humidity buffering properties inherent with clay minerals has been highlighted. The structural design aspects, design limitations and the information on codes of practice for some of the earth construction techniques has been provided. The scope for further R&D work and standardisation including vocational training in the context of modern earth construction has been presented.