ABSTRACT: This paper regards the study and the assessment of the vulnerability of 18 traditional earthen buildings of the villages Pathari (Kabesa) and Tana (Zome), both in Punakha district, Bhutan. It compiles the information on the most relevant architectural, constructive and structural features of the buildings; a particular focus is given to the rammed earth walls and to the seismic resilient features observed. A simplified vulnerability analysis of the buildings was also performed, pointing out some preliminary considerations regarding expected major problems during an earthquake action. A set of general strengthening measures that can/should be applied both to existent and new constructions are suggested based on the previous assessment procedures.