204This work summarizes the recent developments in the field of synthesis, characterization, and activity of ceria-based catalysts. Development of solution combustion technique has proved to be a boon for the synthesis of ceria-based materials. The synthesis technique has provided us with a fast and single step technique for the synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria. Further, substitution of a foreign metal ion has been possible following this technique which has brought about significant improvements in the catalytic activities of ceria-based materials when applied to CO oxidation, NO x reduction, the water-gas shift reaction, catalytic combustion reactions, and C—C coupling reactions. A detailed report on the activity of the catalysts and mechanism of the reactions over these catalysts is presented here.