There is a wide variety of systems consisting of many elements that may be classified as complex systems with cooperative behavior because their behavior as whole entities is a result of cumulative contribution of many elements partly synchronized in individual dynamics. This variety contains objects of different nature, including physical and chemical systems, one on the side, and ecological, economic, and social systems, on the other side. Two characteristic examples of phenomena observed in such complex systems are presented in Figure 38.1. Examples of objects emerging through self-organization processes: ice flowers formed on a window pane in the winter time (left picture) and a flock of birds moving as a whole (right picture). https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9781315374109/356f9d63-55e3-411c-acbc-de6b560bf29a/content/fig38_1_OC.tif"/> (Left picture from Schnobby. Photo: Ice-ferns. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Frost_patterns_4.jpg (licensed under the terms of the CC-BY-SA 3.0). Right picture from Rae, Alastair. Photo: Red-billed quelea flocking at waterhole. https://www.flickr.com/photos/merula/342898722/in/set-72157594423311516 (licensed under the terms of the CC-BY-SA-2.0).)