More than 95% on the new infections and HIV/AIDS-associated deaths occur in developing countries.

Children account for 14% of all new infections and 18% of all deaths due to the HIV. Children infected with the retrovirus have a much higher probability to develop a malignancy during the childhood.

The most common HIV defining and related cancers in children are: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and leyomyosarcoma (mainly in developed countries).

Despite progress in the treatment and survival of childhood cancer globally, the need for adapted protocols and randomized trials for HIV related malignancies in children remain a priority.