The hair and scalp for African Americans, because of their anatomical, histological, and physiological characteristics, have a specific pathology based on the fragility of the hair shaft and the inflammatory hyperreactivity of the scalp tissue. Some types of hairstyles practiced in this ethnic group can also cause disorders, manifesting in types of folliculitis, in traction alopecia, or in hypertrophic scars or keloids. These multiple clinical varieties must be distinguished from diseases common to all ethnic groups. The cosmetic, surgical, and medical treatments must be adapted to the etiology and also to specific ethnic considerations.