India is a country in transition. Infant mortality has come down to about 75 per thousand, and the life expectancy of men has gone up to above 65 years and that of women to above 60. It is estimated that about 10–15% of India’s population are today above the age of 60. This demographic transition inevitably leads to an epidemiological transition. As the population ages, the diseases of life style such as diabetes and hypertension also increase. This is happening while the healthcare system is still struggling to control infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria, malnutrition and maternal deaths. This “double burden” of infectious and life style diseases imposes a severe strain on the health budget.