The era of human solid-organ transplantation was inaugurated a half century ago when a kidney harvested from a healthy donor was implanted into the body of his identical twin brother suffering from renal failure. Over the ensuing decades, organ transplantation has evolved to include not only kidney but also heart, liver, lung and pancreas replacement. While offering extended survival and enhanced quality of life to many patients with lethal and debilitating conditions, these procedures are accompanied by a multitude of complications.