Advances in our understanding of disease mechanisms and in the ability to synthesize novel pharmacological agents have revolutionized the treatment of a wide array of disorders, including infections, autoimmune diseases and cancer. ‘Biomolecules’ is the broad term used to describe both synthetically manufactured versions of endogenous cytokines and monoclonal antibodies directed at specific molecular targets. In the field of cancer chemotherapy, additional novel compounds have been developed that inhibit a variety of different targets, including tyrosine kinases, serine-threonine kinase and the proteasomes.