ABSTRACT

There has been escalated demand for rapid, low-latency and high-rate communication of information at homes and business premises in the past decade. As the need for high speed access by end-users evolved, particularly fuelled by the widespread adoption of the wireless internet (smart phone), some standards such as High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) [1], 3rd Generation Partnership Project Long Term Evolution (3 GPP LTE) as well as its major 60enhancement LTE-Advanced for mobile phone networks [2,3], and IEEE standard for mobile broadband wireless access, also known as “mobile Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)” [4], have been proposed to provide high speed data transmission.