In 1960, J. C. R. Licklider had a vision for a “Man–Computer Symbiosis” in which the human and computer, although dissimilar from one another, would live together in an intimate association, producing increased handling and new ways of processing information (Licklider 1960). Over the past few decades, several attempts to realize this vision have been made by interactive system developers, but each time it has eluded them. This was likely due to the insufficiency of technology and computational power, but also to the need to mature several fields of basic science necessary to understand how human–machine symbiosis might be produced. A more thorough understanding of human brain functioning and what guides behavior during human–computer interaction (HCI) has been a continuing missing requirement in the ability to enable true human–machine symbiosis.