For a long time, scientists’ work had mainly focused on the improvement of methods for the diagnostic analysis of works of art. Although this is a really important topic, a huge demand for innovative solutions to solve the main issues in restoration was growing from conservators. We pioneered the application of nanoscience to the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, which may offer effective and exhaustive answers to these requests. In the following, we will highlight as case studies some of the most important methodologies developed.