The idea of collaborative management (CM) of protected areas, under a variety of different names, including joint management and comanagement, is now established as a major element of protected area (PA) management policies and rhetoric in much of the world. This stems from several factors, including (1) pragmatic recognition that active local support of PAs is important to the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of PA management; (2) recognition, from the point of view of social justice and equity, of the legitimate needs of people who have been deprived of access to 82resources when their homelands have been declared to be PAs; and (3) the linking of funding from international donors to less authoritarian models of PA management.