Robots and machines that perform various tasks in an intelligent and autonomous manner are required in many contemporary technical systems. Autonomous robots have to perform various anthropomorphic tasks in both unfamiliar or familiar working environments by themselves much like humans. They have to be able to determine all possible actions in unpredictable dynamic environments using information from various sensors. In advance, human operators can transfer to robots the knowledge, experience, and skill to solve complex tasks. In the case of a robot performing tasks in an unknown enviroment, the knowledge may not be sufficient. Hence, robots have to adapt and be capable of acquiring new knowledge through learning. The basic components of robot intelligence are actuation, perception, and control. Significant effort has been attempted to make robots more intelligent by integrating advanced sensor systems as vision, tactile sensing, etc. But, one of the ultimate and primary goals of contemporary robotics is development of intelligent algorithms that can further improve the performance of robotic systems, using the abovementioned human intelligent functions.