ABSTRACT

220When surface waters are used as sources for drinking water, abstraction for water treatment may often be downstream of effluent discharge points. 1 Drinking water abstraction from groundwater can also contain endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from diffuse (percolation/infiltration) or point (recharge) sources. 2 Materials in contact with drinking water supplies can be an additional source for EDC contamination. Drinking water is a direct route into the human body and for any EDCs that may be present. Other pathways via ingestion (eating crops irrigated with effluent) or bodily interaction (bathing in waters containing effluent) can place the human body in contact with EDCs.