This chapter discusses the strength, weaknesses and alternatives of the standard analytical determinations available to verify authenticity of virgin olive oil. The classical adulterations can be detected at low percentages by the combination of standard methods proposed to guarantee the quality and purity of olive oil described in the regulations. Other adulterations that are more sophisticated require further studies. The authenticity of olive oil is also linked to traceability, and in this respect, geographical traceability has brought new methods into play. Some of these methods that have been suggested to develop a traceability system for olive oil are discussed. This chapter also exposes some recommendations to develop efficient authenticity methods that can be useful in the detection of current authenticity and traceability problems in the olive oil sector based on: (i) identifying chemical markers with causal relationships; (ii) validating the proposed methods in an appropriate way; and (iii) creating large databases that included the peculiarities associated with the cultivar and with the agricultural practices.