In the process of brewing and packaging beer, many secondary streams are produced that are not part of the beer product stream, and they cannot be used in the final product. There is also an inherent loss of product through the process, and much of this lost beer cannot be recovered and put back into the main product stream. Some of these streams that cannot be recovered and reused can be recovered and converted into valuable by-products. Technological advances and improved microbiological control continue to enable the brewer to reduce product losses and produce valuable by-products from materials that were previously not usable and considered waste. However, some secondary streams as yet have no viable reuse options, so they are discharged to the environment, with or without treatment.