Integrated pest management is a strategy blending various control techniques with the characteristics of the crop, its management and pest organisms, environmental factors, and in some cases the scope and means of those applying the measures (Figure 1). The ultimate aim of such a strategy is to keep the damages through pest organisms below economically relevant levels. At the same time the cost to the users, for example, farmers, and the detrimental effects on the environment should be kept to a minimum. Parameters that need to be integrated into management strategies. https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9781351076456/3697330a-def8-4489-892c-aaaffd00c012/content/fig29_1.tif"/>