In July of 1978 the world received news of the birth of a child following laparoscopic ovum recovery, in vitro fertilization, and transfer of the embryo. This seemingly simple event, repeating what had been achieved in several species of laboratory animals, represents both the culmination of nearly 10 years of active research and the start of an era in primate reproductive biology. Indicative of the activity in this field is the fact that as of the present time (May 1981) human pregnancies have been reported from at least four laboratories, and six children have been born by the procedure with several other pregnancies in progress.