From the beginning of time, enzymes have cured man’s meat, tanned his hide, and prepared his favorite drink. It is only in the last two centuries that he discovered that special proteins (enzymes) were the responsible agents. Today enzymes are known as nature’s catalysts, synthesizing, degrading, or transforming molecules at rates several orders of magnitude faster than they naturally proceed. In addition, these processes usually take place under mild conditions in an aqueous medium. Researchers have learned that enzymes are highly specific, are usually effective on only one substrate, and that they result in a single product. Thousands of enzyme-catalyzed reactions have been identified, hundreds of enzymes have been isolated, but less than twenty have commercial significance. Most of these commercial applications are in the food process industry, specifically starch liquefaction, glucose production, cheese manufacture, baking, and brewing. Many other applications for enzymes have been demonstrated, but the low cost effectiveness of current technology precludes their use. First, enzyme purification is a tedious, costly process. Second, when used in their soluble or free state, enzymes must be destroyed after only one use to prevent further changes in product composition. In addition to the high cost of using free enzymes, if the product is for human consumption there is a risk of adverse immunological response because the now inactive enzyme is still in the product.