As more retail food operations across the United States and throughout the world compete to feed consumers, it becomes essential that uniform hazard analysis and control guidelines for producing, buying, and selling food products be developed and used. These guidelines must be based on science and validated in actual operation. At this time, consumers in the United States are doing less food preparation themselves and are relying on retail food outlets for ready-prepared items. Retail food operations (as referred to in this chapter) include food markets where food is sold to be prepared in the home; food preparation and foodservice establishments that include restaurants, institutional foodservice units, street vending operations, hotel and lodging operations, military commissaries, and even the home, which is actually a miniature foodservice unit.