Occurrence of arsenic in drinking water sources is among the contemporary challenging water quality problems that need immediate attention worldwide. Both natural and human induced arsenic sources are potentially contaminating the water resources and thus exposing millions of people to serious public health risks including cancer. In some areas, mining activities, especially gold mining, have been reported to induce elevated levels of arsenic in adjacent water sources. In most developing countries like Tanzania most lack scientific information on the extent of arsenic levels in water sources. A rapid assessment conducted to determine occurrence of arsenic contamination in water sources in the Lake Victoria mining areas in Tanzania has showed elevated levels of arsenic in some areas. Arsenic levels as high as 70μg L−1 were observed and more than 40% of the water samples taken from the areas had arsenic levels equal to or exceeding the Tanzania Drinking Water Quality Standards threshold value of 10 μg L−1. Areas with high arsenic levels included Maswa, Shinyanga and Musoma districts. The arsenic mobilization into water sources is suspected to be due to oxidation of arsenopyrite after exposure of the ore to the air partly due to mining activities. This linkage makes mining activities potential threat to quality of drinking water sources in the Lake Victoria mining areas, a reason which triggers search for safe water sources. This paper discusses the potential health risks that exists in the Lake Victoria mining areas due to exposure to arsenic contamination and appropriate measures that can be undertaken to protect the health of general public.