As the official data published by Ministry of Health PRC in 2012 indicated, 1.85 million people were still exposed to drinking water with arsenic level above 0.05 mg L−1. Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shandong, Jilin Province are identified as “hotpots”, which are seriously affected by arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In the present study, the authors intend to explore the relationship between arsenic contamination and sustainable management of groundwater resources. The temporal trend and spatial pattern of groundwater resources will be examined, and the impact of anthropogenic arsenic pollution and elevated natural background will be studied. A framework for evaluating the sustainability of groundwater resource management systems will be proposed and used to assess the impact of arsenic pollution. The results of the study may be used to provide a basis for government to conduct effective water quality management in the future.