Drinking water is the important indicator to assess environmental health. Aim of the present research is to investigate water quality at highly dependent drinking water sources and population exposed to potential contamination. Tala upazila of Satkhira district in Bangladesh was selected as study area. Drinking water temperature, EC, Fe, As, total coliform, E. coli, fecal coliform were tested following standard procedure in 649 highly dependent drinking water sources including DTW, STW and PSF. Besides, corresponding 260 dependent households’ coliform bacteria were tested and semi-structured questionnaire survey was conducted. According to WHO, 99%, 83% and 74% water sources exceeded the drinking water standard for EC, Fe and As, respectively. WQI suggested that majority (77%) of highly dependent drinking water sources were unsuitable for drinking and 40% population (0.12 million) in the study area were exposed to potential health. Most frequently people were suffered from fever, diarrhea and high blood pressure and usually they were spending $ 3–13 per month for their health-related expenditure. Regular water testing facilities, keeping water sources at a safe distance from contamination, practicing hygiene behavior, etc. could be taken for improving situation.