Objective: The objective is to synthesize the available scientific evidence about pulmonary effects in humans when exposed to nanoparticles. Methods: A literature systematic review in PUBMED, Medline, LILACS, Web of Science and Cochrane Library database is performed, using “nanoparticles”, “nanotoxicity”, “lung disease”, “pulmonary disease”, “pulmonary effects” and “lung toxicity” as keywords. Papers with human results, full text and published between 2012 June and 2017 July where included. Results: from the initial 208 papers obtained, after the exclusion criteria were applied, 6 papers remained. A clear relation between nanoparticles exposure and human lung disease was found. Discussion: This is the first study that synthesizes the available scientific evidence available about nanoparticle exposure lung disease in humans (between 2012–2017). However, scientific evidence is scarce, and further studies are required.