Low-rank coals with a high-moisture (30–70% on an as-received weight basis) content represent a significant resource worldwide and generally consist of sub-bituminous coals and lignites. An estimated 45% of the world’s coal reserves are lignites, some of which are referred to as brown coal. Most brown coals are cheap and low in ash and sulphur contents, but have high-moisture contents up to 70% on an as-received basis. Low-rank coals represent the major source for power generation in several countries – Australia (~50%), Germany (~75%), Greece (~90%), Poland 118(~55%), Russia (~45%), the USA (~10%) are examples. Figure 6.1 identifies the major countries that use high ash or high-moisture or low-ash low-rank coals, and indicative ranges of moisture content, ash content, and calorific values of lignites in those countries. High-ash and/or high-moisture containing coals often termed as lignites – their locations and calorific values. https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9781351000871/325b88a1-fb7e-4d9e-8961-d2db39fea4cd/content/fig6_1_B.tif"/>