The use of flight simulators for research may traditionally be conceived of as a laboratory-based, empirical endeavour. But in reality, the research-oriented flight simulator is but one methodology along the continuum from laboratory to field environments. This continuum also encompasses both pure and applied research. Research outcomes, such as human factors insights and recommendations, are typically published and handed off to customers (e.g., manufacturers, regulators, etc.) who have their own goals and use these deliverables as a foundation for developing their own products (e.g., building aircraft components, developing rules and advisories, designing training modules). It can be hard to distinguish between the research and development activities performed by manufacturers, regulators, operators and others. This chapter focuses on the primary goal of the simulator user, which tends to dictate the simulation priorities.